作者 |

李怡青(台灣大學心理學系)

摘要 |

同性伴侶經營家庭(簡稱彩虹家庭),從過往社會中的極少數,到現今挑戰不同社會對於家庭規範與法律保障的局限性。在多國通過婚姻平權法案之後,同性伴侶擁有人工生殖與領養的權利,使其家庭樣態更加多元。過往整合分析研究者發現彩虹家庭的家庭功能、家長與子女的表現,和異性伴侶家庭(簡稱預設型態家庭)一樣好,但未能檢視研究與樣本特性對於兩類家庭比較結果的影響,尚有不足。此外,即使多國已通過婚姻平權法案,許多學者和民眾仍有刻板印象(如,男性能否稱職養育子女?)或疑慮(如,異性伴侶家庭的優勢在小孩年紀較長時才出現?)。本文以量化整合分析方法,比較彩虹家庭與預設型態家庭的家庭功能、家長和子女表現,重複驗證兩類家庭型態一樣好的結論。此外,本文回答過往的實徵研究與整合分析無法回答的問題:同性伴侶父親的表現與同性伴侶母親一樣好,亦與預設型態家庭的表現一樣好。本文亦發現,人工生殖或領養的家庭功能兩類家庭大致相仿;子女的種族比例與家庭功能、家長和子女的表現無關;隨著年齡增長,彩虹家庭子女的認知表現與自我評估會越來越好。文中並深入探討家庭功能、家長與子女表現的促進因子與危險因子。

關鍵字 |

同性父親、同性母親、人工生殖、領養

Title |

The Coming-Out of Rainbow Families: A Meta-Analysis of Outcomes for Parents and Offspring

Author |

I-Ching Lee(Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University)

Abstract |

Same-sex families were once considered an anomaly, but they have now become a force which challenges norms and demands legal protections for alternative families. After the passage of marriage equality legalization in various countries, same-sex couples have gained the rights to artificial impregnation and adoption, thus diversifying same-sex families. According to previous meta-analyses, overwhelming similarities between same-sex and different-sex families were observed; however, the lack of evaluation of the variation in the effect sizes has limited the contributions of these studies. In addition, even though legal protections for same-sex families have been offered in various societies, stereotypes (e.g., could men be good caretakers?) and concerns (e.g., perhaps the advantages of different-sex families would be apparent when toddlers grow up) still exist. This article utilizes a quantitative meta-analysis to compare same-sex and different-sex families in terms of family functions, and outcomes for parents and offspring. This research replicates the findings in previous meta-analyses. There is virtually no difference between these two types of families. Extending previous findings, same-sex fathers are as good as same-sex mothers and different-sex parents. Examining children born via insemination or adoption also demonstrates similarities in same-sex and different-sex families. Children’s racial composition does not moderate family functions or outcomes for the parents and their offspring. The age of the offspring matters only in the case of a couple of indicators. When the children grow older, children in same-sex families perform better in cognitive evaluations and self-evaluations than children in different-sex families. The above findings are consistent with the previous research consensus that parental sexual identity has little effect on family functions, or on outcomes for parents and children. I will further discuss potential facilitating and risk factors for family functions and outcomes for parents and their offspring.

Keywords |

same-sex fathers, same-sex mothers, artificial impregnation or insemination, adoption

彩虹家庭的現身:家長與子女表現的整合分析