本研究根據1985底特律區域研究資料，使用兩階段最小平方法(Two-State Least Squares)對250名已婚婦女分析其性別角色態度與就業間之因果關係。在分析模型中考慮個人及家庭因素(包括年齡、教育程度、宗教參與與家庭收入、子女年齡、丈夫就業興否本人健康狀態)及出身家庭背景因素（包括受訪者之母親就業狀況以及父親教育程度）。
Sex-role Attitudes and the Employment of Married Women — A Detroit Area Study
Yu Hsia Lu(Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica)
This study focuses on the causal relationship between women’s sex-role attitudes and labor force participation. Men’s and women’s attitudes toward sex roles have experienced dramatic changed since the late 1960s in the U. S., the study try to explore how the change in sex-role attitudes related to the sharp increase in women’s labor force participation. The causal relationship was investigated among a sample of 250 married women from the 1985 Detroit Area Study (DAS). Based on Two-Stage Least Squares analysis, the analysis model took into account the individual factors (age, educational attainment, religious participation), current family conditions (family income, presence of small children, husband’s employment status and his health condition) and parental family background (mother’s employment status, father’s educational attainment).
The results indicated that a married woman’s sex-role attitudes are more likely to affect rather than to be affected by her employment status, but the reciprocal relationship between sex-role attitudes and employment may vary with different age groups in that the effect of employment on sex-role attitudes may be stronger among younger groups. The findings suggest that women’s sex-role attitudes are a product of the socialization process which is directed by the social structure, rather than a consequence of adaptation to their employment status. Therefore, women’s sex-role attitudes are less likely to shift only in response to their employment because these attitudes are supported by sex-based labor division in the social structure as a whole.
sex-role attitudes、married women's employment、socialization、Detroit、 two-stage least squares