長久以來，女性參與公共領域始終面臨兩個問題，亦即她們容易被安排在競爭性弱或次要的職位，而且相較於男性，女性更不容易接近權力核心。審議民主作為新興的公民參與模式，能否突破上述兩個問題？本文主要想探討的是，審議民主是否存有性別差異和性別不平等？此外，女性如何在參與過程中發揮影響力？為了清楚瞭解女性實際參與的情形，作者以2007年青年國是會議為研究個案，透過影像紀錄來觀察並分析會議參與者的互動情形。另外，作者也深度訪談十一位參與者，試圖瞭解女性對於開會過程的主觀感受。研究結果發現，相較之下，女性的發言次數與意見都只有男性的二分之一，而且女性改變他人意見的比率也只有男性的三分之一，因此審議民主確實有性別差異和不平等的情形。此外，作者也發現，會議決策其實是由不同的「結盟」所形成，而這些結盟的領導者都是男性。參與結盟的女性，其發言比較容易獲得重視，而跑單幫的女性參與者即便擁有豐富知識，也不易與他人產生互動。因此，結盟一方面有助於提升女性影響力，另一方面也可能擠壓女性的影響力。最後，作者試著以Iris M. Young的排除概念（exclusion）解釋審議會議中，會議環境與結盟如何交織成性別不平等。
Gender Differences in Deliberative Democracy: An Empirical Analysis of the 2007 Youth Forum*
Yu-hsin Chang(Institute of Sociology National Tsing Hua University)
For a long time, women’s public participation are confronted with two problems: firstly, they tend to be assigned to subordinate or less competitive positions. Secondly, compared with men, women have more difficulties in accessing the power center. Can the new model of public participation, deliberative democracy, solve the problems above? In this article, I want to discuss two questions: does deliberative democracy have
the elements of gender differences and gender inequality? How do women influence the decision-making process? In order to understand the process of women’s participation clearly, I did a case study of the 2007 Youth Forum by observing and analyzing the participants’ interactions based on video recording. In addition, I interviewed in-depth 11 participants to know how they felt about the forum. Consequently, I found that women’s participation was 50% less than men’s, in terms of how many times they spoke up and how many points they made. In addition, the chances for women to change others’ opinions were only one third of men’s. As a result, gender differences and gender inequality still exist in deliberative democracy. Besides, I also found that the decision-making was formed by different “alliances,” which were led by men, and only those women participating in the alliances could be treated seriously. On the contrary, even though being outstanding in terms of knowledge of certain issues, a woman excluded from the alliances would find it difficult to interact with others. Therefore, “alliances” did improve some women’s influence on the one hand, while hampering the others’ on the other hand. In conclusion, I try to explain how the interaction between alliances and the environment of the forum causes gender differences and gender inequality by employing Iris M. Young’s concept of exclusion.
gender differences, gender inequality, deliberative democracy, the public participation of women