本文以「經濟依賴」和「人際關係」的角度出發採質性方法探討老年婦女經濟和居住從子的困境的經驗和解釋。根據員林鄉鎮四個焦點團體的座談之錄音，經過轉錄和敘說分析的結果，我們發現山四個團體之老年婦女均認為女兒比較關心自己，可是受制於父系、文化規範，和財產傳子之經濟契約，只能「看後生(兒子)屁股，不看女兒臉」，因此導致母 — 女親情阻隔，卻必須與媳婦同堂，形成「不看女兒面，卻看媳婦臉色」的困境。(2)經濟依賴兒子的婆婆，使婆 — 媳關係產生了地位的變化，婆婆「吃老」困難，可由必需以家事服務交換生活依賴及日常得看兒媳臉色反應出來，使婆婆產生「以前要侍侯公婆，現在要侍侯媳婦」的不平感受。(3)社會變遷、兒媳移居都市，造成老年婦女(尤其是老年喪偶婦女)離開家園老厝，到不熟的都市公寓，造成她們普遍「關監牢」的感受。如必需輪住，更導致其「不得已」的困境。(4)老年婦女雖然仍在傳統規範的認知下，接受從子式三代同堂的安排，但是言辭之中，已溢出對經濟自主，老人共住的需求，並對國外的經濟安全和老人公寓等福利措施十分嚮往。
An Exploration on Old Women's Financial Dependency and Living Arrangement Problems
Hum Yow-Hwey (Institute of Health & Welfare Policy, National Yang-Ming University)、Chou, Yah-Jong(Department of Psychology, National Chung Cheng University)
This paper examines the difficulties of old women’s financial dependency and three generation living arrangement problems by qualitative exploration on women’s experience and interpretation. The narratives from our four focus groups held in Yuenlin County are analyzed and summarized as follow : 1) Almost all our old ladies consider their daughters’ care much better than the care offered by their daughters-in-law. However , the patrilocal custom prohibits the mother—daughter contact but enforced in—laws encounters in their everyday living conditions. 2) Many old women are financially dependent on their sons, which put them in a disadvantaged situation in the in-law dyadic relations. Some felt that they have to perform house chores to exchange for their living. This experience made them depressed especially compared with their own daughter—in-law experience. 3)The rural—to—urban migration of their offsprings has put old women in a position to disconnect with old friends and neighbors, in order to stay with their son’s family. The alternative meal rotation practice has made old women’s adaptation even harder. 4) Many old women express their desires for financial independent and being able to live in old people apartment as what they overheard about elderly’s welfare in other countries. These results are also discussed in terms of cultural myth and policy implications.
elderly women、economic dependency、living arrangement