研究結果顯示在孩子學前階段，三位女老師的生活主要以家庭和孩子為主，個人的興趣與自我很少成為優先考量；到了孩子求學階段，面對工作家庭挫折與危機，主要在追求穩定，開始培養新興趣及新技能；進入空巢期變得更獨立自主，逐漸脫離家庭意識形態的束縛，進而產生自覺與賦權。她們生命週期過程可歸納出三個轉變主題：(一) 從以家庭為重心轉變為以自我為重心，(二) 逐漸從家庭意識形態束縛中解放，(三) 在休閒情境下逐漸產生自覺賦權。
本研究的結論有五：(一) 空巢期女老師漸進緩慢地獲得她們的獨立自主及權力。(二) 要達到家庭意識形態的自覺並產生力量是需要具備某些要件的，譬如高等教育、穩定工作、豐富的社會網絡、財務良好、以及不斷的努力與堅持。(三) 應用與解讀發展心理學生命週期三階段理論應謹慎小心。 (四) 當空巢期女老師移轉她們的興趣與精力到家庭之外時，她們的配偶傾向以家庭為生活中心，而產生夫妻角色互換的現象。(五) 空巢期女老師從事多樣的休閒活動及嗜好，與家庭意識形態的自覺與賦權之間係交互影響的。文末並就研究結果與結論的啟示與涵義深入討論。
Work, Leisure, and Family Ideology of Three Female Empty-Nesters: The Process of Awareness and Empowerment
Yi-Chung Hsu(Institute of Tourism and Recreation Management, National Dong Hwa University)、Shing-Rung Lee(Institute of Tourism and Recreation Management, National Dong Hwa University)
Using qualitative approach, the study was to examine the process of awareness and empowerment of family ideology in female’s three life stages. The sample was three empty-nester female teachers. Data were collected utilizing in-depth interviewing technique as well as participant observation.
The results indicated that all three teachers centered their life on the family during the early establishment stage. As a result, personal interests and self-growth were greatly ignored. At the mid-establishment, as they encountered work and family conflict, they pursued stability as well as new knowledge and skills. At the late establishment, they became more independent and confident. Ultimately they gained a sense of awareness and empowerment over their life span. Three major transitions were found during their life stages: (1) from family-centered to self-centered, (2) relieved from constraints of the family ideology gradually, and (3) awareness and empowerment gradually emerged within leisure containers.
Five conclusions were drawn. (1) Female teachers gain their independence and power gradually. (2) In order to gain awareness and empowerment of family ideology, they need to be well educated with stable jobs, have affluent social network and financial independence, and with persistent efforts. (3) Applying and interpreting the life stage theory developed by developmental psychology should be done cautiously. (4) While female teachers focus their interests and energy outside wedlock, their spouses become family-centered and tend to reverse husband-wife role. And (5) Female teachers’ awareness and empowerment of family ideology are mutually influenced with pursuing diverse leisure activities as well as hobbies. Recommendations and implications of the study were further discussed.
Qualitative research, life span, family ideology, awareness, empowerment