作者 |

嚴巧珊(國防大學政戰學院心理及社會工作學系)、許雅惠(暨南國際大學社會政策與社會工作學系)

摘要 |

  政府推動「性別主流化」政策與募兵制十五年來,軍隊中女性人力提升,軍事場域面對多面向的性別議題已成必然。然而,在軍隊此一極端的、封閉的性別化組織中,性別平權推動現況如何?外界仍多難以一窺究竟。本研究以質性研究方法,涵括陸軍、海軍和空軍的現役五年以上男性和女性軍官為訪談對象,運用個別深度訪談法,試圖描繪女性軍人之人力運用、職務歷練現況與經驗,以及受訪者對性騷擾防治、升遷制度改變、組織文化變革等議題的觀察與詮釋。
  研究發現,招募女性軍人比例提高、軍職發展的多樣性,看似能持續挑戰傳統軍事制度中的性別規範、價值觀與態度;但軍隊中難以撼動的陽剛霸權,加上社會文化裡的父權意識形態之內外夾攻,讓性別主流化的價值並未真正落實,甚至可能加重了權力的不公平;而性別歧視、性騷擾事件的發生,更凸顯出性別權力的不平等,女性軍人仍舊難以掌握自身性別處境的主宰性,彷彿受到隱性圍欄的限制,被框定在軍事的從屬角色、家庭主要照顧者的角色之中,以至於女性軍人仍難跨越框住自我的性別界線。本研究最後並針對軍隊中的性別主流化後續推動策略,提出建言。

關鍵字 |

性別主流化、陽剛霸權、父權意識

Title |

An Invisible Barricade: Gender Mainstreaming Practices in Taiwan's Military

Author |

Chiao-Shan Yen (Department of Psychology and Social Work, National Defense University), Yea-Huey Sheu (Department of Social Policy and Social Work, National Chi Nan University)

Abstract |

In the past fifteen years, with the promotion of “gender mainstreaming” and the change of the labor force recruitment system, the proportion of women in the military has increased, and it is inevitable that multi-faceted gender issues must be faced. As a special gendered organization, how is the promotion of gender equality actualized in the military? The realization of gender equality in the military calls for more exploration.
Based on a qualitative research approach, this research uses in-depth interviews as a data collecting method. Male and female officers who have served for more than five years in the army, the navy, and the air force, were invited to share their experiences and observations about the following issues. What is the current status of female military personnel manpower utilization and the working environment? How has the promotion system changed? Do sexual harassment prevention measures work? Have they experienced the practice of gender mainstreaming in changing the gender relations within the military, or how effective do they perceive them to be?
The results show that the increasing proportion of female military personnel recruited and the diversity of military position options seem to challenge attitudes and arrangements of traditional military systems, but quite superficially. The masculine hegemony of the military, combined with internal and external complaints and sarcasms from the traditional patriarchal culture, has aggravated the unfairness of unequal power between males and females. Incidents of gender discrimination and sexual harassment also highlight the inequality of gender power. There is an invisible barricade in front of female military personnel. Their subordinate role within the military, as well as their roles as the main caregivers within their families, make women marginal and insignificant in the military. Gender boundaries have not actually disappeared, both personally and structurally. Some strategic suggestions are provided finally to enhance the quality of gender mainstreaming in the military.

Keywords |

gender mainstreaming, masculine hegemony, patriarchal ideology

隱形圍欄:軍隊中的性別主流化實踐