本研究提出了一個了解親密關係中衝突化解過程的理論模式。模式中包括個別差異(individual differences)，關係規範(relationship norms)，影響策略(influence strategies)，及關係品質(relationship quality)等因素。研究採用問卷調查法。問卷由研究者設計，包括性別角色，文化價值與態度、交換關係導向與行為，歸因型態，影咨策略，及關係品質等變項。樣本包括100對在台灣的中國人夫婦，100對在美國明尼蘇答州的中國人夫婦，及100對在美國明尼蘇答州的美國人夫婦。資料分析採用結構方程式模式設計(Structural equation modeling design)來分析，此方法結合驗證性因素分析(confirmatory factor analysis)與因徑分析(path analysis)兩法之優點，對理論模式的合適程度進行評估。初步分析結果，刪掉較不具影響力的個別差異因素，而確立了修改後的理論模式。
綜合來看，研究結果相當支持修改後的理論模式，合適指數(Goodness of Fit)在85~87之間。在模式中，關係規範因素強而有力地影響夫婦們在面對衝突時的歸因型態，進而影咨到策略的選擇，及婚姻關係的品質。比如，採取關係交換導向(exchange oriented)的夫婦，就較多呈現利已責他(Self-serving/spouse blaming)的歸因型態。第二、利己貢他的歸因型態易導致較多負面策略的使用，較少正面策略的使用，同時並降低婚姻滿足感與承諾感。第三，影響策略因素對關係品質的影響不如預期地強，只有部份假設得到支持。最後，性別差異的討論亦在結論部份提出。
Conflict Resolution Processes in Close Relationships
Whei-ching Liu(Psychology Department, Soochow University)
A theoretical model is proposed to illuminate the processes of conflict resolution in close relationships. The model includes individual differences, relationship norms, attributions, and influence strategies. A set of questionnaires including measures of gender role, allocentrism-idiocentrism values and attitudes, exchange-orientation, exchange-communal behavior. marital attribution style, social influence strategies, and relationship quality, was developed. Samples are 100 Chinese couples in Taiwan, 100 Chinese and 100 American couples in Minnesota, USA. The data were analyzed by a structural equation modeling design, which essentially integrates confirmatory factor analysis with path analysis. The degree to which obtained data fit a conceptual model can be evaluated. As a result, the initial models were revised by dropping some nonsignificant factors, and revised models were generated by re-specification. Generally the findings provide substantial support for the revised models. First, across all the samples there is strong and consistent evidence that relationship norms affect couples’ attribution style, which in turn affects the choice of conflict resolution strategies and marital satisfaction and commitment. Couples who establish more exchange oriented (rather than communal oriented) relationship norms, attribute their marital conflicts in a more personally self-serving and spouse-blaming way. Second, self-serving and spouse-blaming attribution styles decrease marital relationship quality and lead to more use of negative influence strategies like contending and avoiding, and less use of positive influence strategies like yielding and confrontation. Third, the social influence strategy factor does not play a successful mediating role between attribution and relationship quality, although some findings still partially support the hypotheses. In addition, cultural and gender differences are discussed.
close relationships、conflict resolution