社會對身心障礙者的身體所賦予的意義和女性身體有許多相似的地方，兩者經常被視為「軟弱」、「被動」與「依賴」，兩者也經常被排除在公領域和經濟生產之外。這種相似性並非巧合，而是男性障礙者的障礙歷程中「去陽剛化」刻意建構出來結果。對男性先天障礙者而言，「去陽剛化」是個漫長而緩慢的社會化過程。經由教育系統和勞動市場的排除與邊緣化，先天障礙者逐步符合社會所期待的障礙者形象。對後天成年障礙者而言，這個「去陽剛化」的轉變則是突然而且劇烈的。不論先天或後天，視覺障礙者都是因為「去陽剛化」而無法達成傳統男性的社會角色與功能，終於成為殘障者。當社會對性別角色的想法越僵化時，身處其中的障礙者所受到的限制就越多，他們在公領域和經濟生產上也越容易受到排除，最終也越容易失去他們的公民權。本研究主要針對障礙與性別交會(intersection of disability and gender)所構織出來的社會壓迫做初步探索。
Dilemmas of Masculinity: A Study of the Visually Impaired Males
Tasing Chiu(Department of Medical Sociology and Social Work, Kaohsiung Medical University)
In Taiwan, social construction of the bodies of individuals with disabilities parallels that of female bodies in several ways. Both types of body are often considered as “weak,” “passive” and “dependent,” and both are often excluded from the public sphere and economic production. For Taiwanese males who have lost their vision in their early years, “de-masculinization” is a slow and life-long socialization process. Through exclusion and marginalization in education and the labor market, these vision-impaired males are gradually made to fit social expectations. For those who lose their vision later in their adult years, “de-masculinization” comes suddenly and acutely. Males with visual impairment become “less a man” through “de-masculinization” processes, such as working in secondary labor market, and finally become “disabled” because they can no longer fulfill the man’s role in society. The current study is an exploration of the social oppression that unfolds at the intersection of disability and gender.
Disability, visual impairment, masculinity, socialization