作者 |

謝曉菁(台灣大學歷史學系)

摘要 |

本文以明末女將沈雲英(1624-1660)為中心,旁及其他同時代的從軍女性,從男性對她們的書寫,探討從軍女性不同於貞節烈女,所表現出的性別翻轉現象,以及男性文人如何透過對她們的書寫,反映出他們對從軍女性的普遍期待。

本文首先從毛奇齡所撰沈雲英的墓誌銘、傳記,於標題、姓名書寫方式均不同於一般女性的通則,以及沈雲英族人所撰族譜破例將她列入男性世系表中,凸顯沈雲英在這些男性的特殊處理下,得以彰顯其作為從軍女性的主體與特殊性。其次則透過探討男性文人對沈雲英及其他同時代從軍女性的書寫,指出這些女性看似透過在沙場上耀眼的表現,跨越了性別的邊界,但此越界行為在男性文人的筆下,仍舊服膺於父權體制與儒家價值,不僅被冠以「忠、孝、節、貞」等德行加以合理化,她們作為驍勇善戰的女性主體,亦在男性執筆者的監控下,未能全然自由施展。

關鍵字 |

沈雲英、從軍女性、性別越界、女性傳記、儒家價值

Title |

Military Women as Described by Male Literati: The Late-Ming Warrior Shen Yunying (1624-1660)

Author |

Hsiao-Ching Hsieh (Department of History, National Taiwan University)

Abstract |

The present paper focuses on writings authored by male writers on the late Ming warrior Shen Yunying (1624-1660), as well as other military women during the Ming-Qing transition. It explores their gender reversal specifically as revealed by the differences in writing about military women versus chaste women. Moreover, this paper considers how male literati expressed their general expectations of military women through these forms of writings.

This paper begins with discussion on the epitaph and biography of Shen Yunying, as written by Mao Qiling (1623-1713), which did not conform to largely practiced rules concerning writing on women. This is shown in regards to the title of the work and the specific naming of the subject. In addition, the clansmen of Shen made an exception to the general rule of excluding women born into the clan by listing Shen Yunying within the lineage when compiling their genealogy. These two forms of special treatment, seen here to be permitted by men, demonstrate the subjectivity and particularities of Shen as a military woman. Secondly, by examining the writings on Shen Yunying and other contemporary military women, this paper argues that the remarkable feats performed by these military women on the battlefield crossed gender boundaries; being described by men, however, this “crossing” still obeyed the patriarchal systems and traditional Confucian values, and was rationalized through virtues such as loyalty, piety and chastity. The subjectivities of these military women were thus not able to be freely displayed, given that their depiction is under the control of male writers.

Keywords |

Shen Yunying, military women, gender crossing, female biography, Confucian values

男性文人筆下的從軍女性:以明末女將沈雲英為核心