二十世紀美國女性主義者推動平權修正案(Equal Rights Amendment, ERA)，禁止美國政府法令用性別的理由歧視女性，目的是消除性別歧視，理應受到女性歡迎，但平權修正案卻遭到挫敗，而且，有相當多的女反對。為什麼有那麼多美國女性反對平權修正案呢？女性反對平權修正案的原因很多，因種族、階級、教育、宗教、經濟等背景而不同。本文目的並不在分析女性反對平權修正案各種可能原因，而是希望從平權修正案反對者的論點中，探討他們對傳統母親角色觀點的堅持。再回過頭來，評論美國女性主義者的新母親角色觀。
Equal Rights and Motherhood: the debate on the equal rights amendent,1972-1982
Yen-Chuan Yu(institute of European & American Studies Academia Sinica)
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), advocated by second wave feminists in America in the late 20th century, aimed to eradicate sexual discrimination in American laws. However, it was opposed by many women and consequently defeated in 1982 after 10 years of serious campaign. Why did those people oppose such a constitutional amendment which seemed to enhance women’s status and treatment? This article suggests that one of the major anxieties of those women who opposed the ERA is the anxiety over motherhood.
Investigating and analyzing debates between the supporters and opponents of the ERA between 1972and 1982, I am concerned with the following questions. First, I seek to understand the opponents’ fear and anxiety over the ERA. Secondly, I will review the content and development of the feminist version of motherhood. Thirdly, starting with the opponents’ criticism, I will investigate the weakness and inadequacy of feminist concept of motherhood with a particular focus on what some feminists deemed as the possible incompatibility between the concepts of equal rights and motherhood.
This essay is divided into five parts. After the Introduction, I briefly introduce the history of the ERA in section 2. Then I analyze opponents’criticism on the ERA as well as feminists’ response and rebuttal in terms of motherhood in section 3. In section 4, I discuss feminist criticism of the traditional motherhood and their new version of motherhood. The final section concludes that feminist concept of equal rights based on sameness (no difference) between men and women had not derived a theory of motherhood comprehensively.
Equal Rights Amendment, motherhood, equality, difference, feminism