照顧成為概念在西方發展已久，最早源自女性在家庭的無酬照顧，到當代發展出多元性和制度分化的照顧提供概念，照顧成為市場商品和福利商品，顯示提供照顧的責任與角色已在國家、市場、社區和家庭間重組。雖有相當多與照顧相關的文獻，但缺乏從世代觀點探索女性生命歷程樣態和照顧分工轉型的鑲嵌性。為此，本文以質性研究為典範，依女性主義理論和生命歷程觀點的研究精神，深入訪談1950 年代、1970年代兩個世代共1 位女性的生命經驗，輔以官方檔案分析為脈絡，建構不同世代的女性生命歷程樣態，探討照顧分工轉型與國家行動產生結構性壓力和機會的關係。
Reorganization of Caregiving in Taiwan: A Comparisonbetween Two Generations over the Female Life Course
Hsiang-Lan Liu(Department of Social WorkNational Taiwan University)、Yeun-Wen Ku(Department of Social WorkNational Taiwan University)
Care as a concept has been developing for many years, from putting women into an unpaid care context, to diversity of care provision. Care as commodity or welfare goods implies the re-organization of responsibility between state, market, community, and family. This study reviews many existing papers relating to care and finds an important research gap: the different female experiences across generations and their interaction with the institutional structures are missing. Thus, this paper integrates a feminist approach and life course theory, to explore the nature of female caregiving in Taiwan over two generations (those born in the1950s and1 970s). To achieve this goal, the research design is primarily based on qualitative research, including in-depth interviews and document analysis. The finding is that the oppressive situation faced by the female caregivers is both gendered and generationalized. The 1950s females are embedded into family care within their life course as unpaid and paid care workers, while the 1970s females face multiple pressures from work and caregiving, though with assistance from care allowances and respite services that actually do not change the female role as caregivers. This paper argues that the transformation of care contributes to the reorganization of female labor and to differentiating women’s experience by generation and class. There organization of care division in the past decade is still deeply rooted in the patriarchal nature of the state and does not really help women escape from the trap of caregiving.
care allowance, respite services, Feminism, Taiwan, 1950s,1970s