作者 |

謝世宗(清華大學台灣文學研究所)

摘要 |

俗稱的「慰安婦」指涉1937至1945年太平洋戰爭期間,在日軍戰場與日本統治區,為日軍提供性服務的女性。本文檢視台灣戰後小說與紀錄片中慰安婦的不同闡連方式,首先聚焦作為公共論述的紀錄片,檢視楊家雲的《阿媽的秘密:台籍慰安婦的故事》(1998)與吳秀菁的《蘆葦之歌:慰安婦阿嬤光影紀實》(2015),如何透過不同的再現模式,建構「受難者主體」,以及曾經受創但最終被賦予能動性的「強健主體」,並點出社福團體、紀錄片拍攝與被攝者的權力關係。再者聚焦戰後台灣小說涉及慰安婦的作品,包括陳千武的〈獵女犯〉(1976)與李永平的《雨雪霏霏》(2002)中〈望鄉〉一章。陳千武的小說在殖民者與被殖民者的二元對立之外,描繪了整個帝國體制,包含日本軍方、台灣「志願軍」、東南亞女性所涉及的多層次階序關係。李永平的小說則聚焦男性角色在父權體制之中,同時扮演的迫害者與受害者角色,揭示壓迫性的權力結構裡蘊含的曖昧性與複雜性。本文以「對位閱讀」的方式,檢視紀錄片與小說的不同論述形式和建構的不同主體,以提供我們對慰安婦事件在詮釋上的另類視角。

關鍵字 |

慰安婦、紀錄片、戰後台灣小說、闡連、對位閱讀

Title |

Revisiting the Comfort Women: A Contrapuntal Reading of Their Stories in Postwar Taiwanese Fiction and Documentaries

Author |

Elliott S.T. Shie (Graduate Institute of Taiwan Literature, National Tsing Hua University)

Abstract |

As a euphemism for prostitutes working in military brothels, “comfort women” refers to women working voluntarily or by coercion for the Japanese military during World War II. Rather than investigating the historical reality of Taiwan’s comfort women under Japanese rule, this article examines the depictions of “comfort women” in postwar Taiwanese fiction and documentaries. In 1998, director Yang Jiayun made the first documentary, Grandmothers’ Secrets: Stories of Comfort Women from Taiwan, about Taiwan’s wartime comfort women, which was followed by a sequel, Song of the Reed, by Wu Xiujing (2015). These two documentaries function as public discourse and, through various modes of representation, construct the comfort women not only as victims but also as empowered subjects. The second part of this article shifts its focus to the literary representation of comfort women, analyzing Chen Qianwu’s short story “Hunting Captive Women” (1976) and Li Yongping’s autobiographic novel Drifting Rain and Snow (2002). Chen’s work challenges the binary oppositions between the oppressor and the oppressed, the victimizer and the victim, when third parties such as Southeast Asian women are involved. In addition to revealing Taiwan’s double role, Li’s story points to the oppressive character of patriarchy and his own sinister cooperation with it. Through the method of contrapuntal reading with an implicit knowledge of the historical background, this article juxtaposes and contrasts the documentaries with the literary texts in hopes of providing alternative perspectives on the complexity of the controversies surrounding the topic of comfort women.

Keywords |

comfort women, documentary, postwar Taiwanese fiction, articulation, contrapuntal reading

再現慰安婦:紀錄片與小說的對位閱讀