本文擬以「扮裝研究」角度，對晚明文學本＿馮孟龍與友人所編簒的「三言」(《古今小說》、《警世恆言》、《醒世恆言》)與凌濛初所著「二拍」(《初刻拍案驚奇》、《二刻拍案驚奇》)，進行中國小說文類扮裝研究的觀察，並嘗試以西方豐富的扮裝研究成為作為參考架構，以Kate Millett的「性政治」(Sexual Politics)觀點作為本文的基本立場，再結合符號學理論的運用，期能建立一套適用於中國文學文本的扮裝理論，以解讀「三言」、「二拍」中男扮女裝之性別與文化意義。
The Gender and Culture Meanings of Cross-Dressing in Sanyan&Erhp'ai
Chu-Ch'ing Ts'ai(Graduate Institute of Comparative Literature Fu Jen Catholic University)
In this paper I try to focus on cross-dressing in literary texts in the Late Ming period—Sanyan(三言) edited by Feng,Menglung(馮夢龍) and Erhp’ai(二拍) written by Ling,Mengch’u(凌濛初). I try to adopt Cross-dressing research in Gender Studies, Kate Millett’s theory in Sexual Politics and Semiology to discuss the gender and culture implications in cross-dressing.
In ancient China, the power structure model based on”male esteem”(Nantsun Nüpei男尊女卑), “male dominance”(Nanchu Nüts’ung男主女從) predominated. Cross-dressing has been considered “loosened” the tight grip of such dominance. The expression of it in form of perversion of sex role and action, however, still shows opinionated interpretations. By comparing the texts, male and female cross-dressing, one detects different purposes and consequences. In short, male cross-dressing always leads to sexual violation against the female sex; however, female cross-dressing usually leads to variable consequences almost all positive in moral, ethical, and social terms. This leads to conclude that male editors and writers’ writing cross-dressing texts, on the one hand, still copy the real situation between male and female, on the other hand, male editors and writers have created some new “Images of Women” by cross-dressing’s inspiration.
After all, “Clothing” is something “outside”, and it is a constructed semiotic system. “Gender” is some kind of ”performance”, and it is constructed by culture. It is the human being who is being dressed is the true subject. We’re looking forward to building up some kind of culture having respect for any genders.
Sanyan、Erhp'ai、Cross-dressing、Sexual politics、Gender studies