目前酷兒家庭論述仍多以美國與其他西方國家為研究對象，本研究首度探討西方國家脈絡以外、特別是「非法」情境下的女同志生殖科技實作。透過長達七年的田野觀察，本文訪查14位台灣女同志本身或伴侶實際使用人工生殖的經驗。依照歷史時期與行動類型的區隔，本研究發現台灣女同志的生殖科技實作可分為三種不同階段。第一是零星游擊戰時期，時間約為1990 年代至 2000 年代初期。整體同志社群仍缺乏對人工生殖之想像，亦缺少支持或鼓勵同志親職之論述。因此，當時的女同志多以單打獨鬥的自力救濟方式，透過「偷渡」設法進入既有的醫療體制。第二，自從女同志媽媽聯盟於2006年開始發行《拉媽報》之後，集體的同志親職渴望逐漸浮現，女同志亦透過此網絡分享資訊，嘗試自助滴精的方法。第三，自2012年起，台灣女同志生殖科技實作進入海外人工生殖時期，女同志媽媽聯盟不再是單一的人工生殖資訊傳播來源，許多曾赴海外進行人工生殖的女同志，主動在網路上分享自身親驗，大幅增進了國外人工生殖的親近性與便利性。女同志也開始採用更多樣的人工生殖技術，例如ROPA（reception of oocytes from partner）實作。本文呈現台灣女同志在不同時期運用既有的網絡與社會資源，進行不同形式的生殖科技實作。酷兒生殖，指的正是不同的使用者偷渡並挪用此一科技，鬆動了助孕科技原本欲達成的社會效果，也產生了新形態的同志親屬關係。
Queering Reproduction in a Prohibited Context:Assisted Reproductive Technologies as Utilized by Taiwan’s Lesbians
Szu-Ying Ho(The Graduate Center City University of New York)
While most queer family literature focuses on experiences in Western countries, this paper explores how lesbians in Taiwan have appropriated Assisted Reproduction Technologies (ARTs) in a context in which this technology is denied to them. Through more than seven years’ field work, participation and observation in Taiwan LGBT parenting groups, the author explains how 14 Taiwan lesbians have negotiated and navigated their ways to get access to ARTs in spite of the legal restrictions. In the first period (1990s through early 2000s), due to the lack of lesbian parenting discourses and images in the lesbian community, most lesbians who wanted to be parents tried to misrepresent themselves to the existing medical system to get access to ARTs as individuals. Some lesbians contracted pseudo-marriages with gay men to get legal access to ARTs, and some lesbians disguised themselves as single women (letting physicians assume they were heterosexuals) in order to meet the physicians’ moral concerns. In the second phase (beginning about 2001), lesbian mothers’ associations used multiple channels to disseminate knowledge about selfinsemination. However, the lack of a long history of a feminist health movement as well as appropriate sperm sources in Taiwan were crucial barriers to the practice of self-insemination in Taiwan. In the third phase (beginning about 2012), more and more lesbians pursued access to ARTs abroad and actively shared their experiences on the internet and on websites. Now, besides lesbian mother associations, there are many different information resources to help lesbians find appropriate ARTs. Also, some lesbian have utilized ROPA (reception of oocytes from partner) in this period, since this provides sharing in the reproductive process as well as legal standing for both partners as parents of the child. “Queering” reproduction means lesbian actors not only embody new biomedical modalities by appropriating ARTs — they also create new kinship and family formations that can provide normative images for the wider society.
Queering reproduction, queer, lesbians, Assisted Reproductive Technologies, self-insemination, ROPA (reception of oocytes from partner), Taiwan